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The flavour and aroma of coffee are influenced by many factors – the coffee plant type, roasting degree, grinding degree, dosage, water quality and temperature, storage duration and conditions and, of course, the brewing and preparation process itself.

The typical aroma and flavour of brewed coffee are a result of the respective roasting procedure. The roasting temperature and duration have to be well-balanced, depending on the type of raw coffee used as well as the flavour preferences for the finished coffee drink.
Lightly roasted coffee has a very mild taste while darker roasts have a distinctive, much stronger flavour.

Grinding degree
If the coffee powder is ground too finely, the coffee will taste very strong as the exposure time of the coffee to the hot water is prolonged by the many small coffee particles. On the other hand, coffee ground too coarsely will cause the water to pass through the filter too quickly, resulting in a very thin coffee.

The right dosage is essential for the intensity and therefore the flavour of the coffee. For one cup of coffee, 6 to 8 grams of ground coffee powder or 12 grams of instant coffee powder are calculated as average.

Water quality
Approximately 98 percent of the brewed coffee drink consists of water. The minerals and salts contained in the water are important flavour carriers for the finished coffee drink, therefore it is obvious that the water quality is of large importance for the taste of the coffee. The water should be rich in minerals and oxygen. To brew coffee, cold water should be heated as quickly as possible in order to prevent oxygen to diminish during the heating process. Hard, calcareous water and water containing chlorine should be avoided as these factors have a very negative influence on the coffee flavour.

Brewing temperature
The ideal water temperature for brewing coffee should be between 86 and 89 degrees Celsius, but not higher than 96 degrees. Only espresso is prepared with a higher temperature (usually between 90 and 96 degrees Celsius).

Storage conditions / shelf life
The freshly brewed coffee should be consumed in good time; it should not be kept warm for too long as the aroma will quickly vanish, leaving the coffee to taste very bitter.
The coffee powder should be used in the freshest state possible and stored in a cool and dry place in an airtight container.

Source: www.kaffeeverband.de